Archive issues

Author: Joanna Popielska-Grzybowska   |   Pages: 537–546



The article is a preliminary study on the mutual relations between the ancient Egyptian creator god Atum and his son. Son is understood here in many aspects as the oldest son of the creator, but also as the creator himself. The oldest son of Atum may be his firstborn – the god Shu, and simultaneously the embodiment of his firstborn son – the pharaoh. It is so because the creator bequeathed his kȝ, that is his essence, his specificity, namely being the god of All comprising in himself all aspects of life, to his scion. That is everything what seems to contradict itself, but in reality supplements and completes each other, as, for instance life and death are. Consequently, evident and crucial is an act of bequeathing, transmitting vital essence kȝ by father into son. It seems to be a continuous element of creation taking place cyclically every day, every moment even. Thus this act of transition of kȝ element at the very beginning of the genuine creation of the world assures continuity of existence of the firstborn element, the creative element kȝ in all his sons. It repeats creation and ensures everlastingness of essence of the first god, and consequently it secures survival of the every father in his son. Moreover, there meet both the idea of linear and progressive eternity ḏt, expressed by bequeathing life from parents to children, with the idea of eternal continuity and repeatability of nature nḥḥ.



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